As we have discussed in several recent posts, the FTC has made several changes to the merger antitrust review process. This month, the FTC made two more changes, one completely expected and one hinted at in other recent announcements.
HSR Thresholds Updated
As expected — in fact, required by statute — the FTC announced the annual update to various HSR thresholds based on growth in the economy in the last year. The minimum threshold for filings was increased to $101M. Any transactions properly valued at that level or less do NOT trigger any HSR filing requirement. The upper threshold was also increased, this time to $403.9M. Any transaction valued in excess of that level will trigger a filing requirement unless one of several exemptions apply. Transactions valued in between those two amounts will trigger a filing requirement only if the size of the person thresholds are crossed. In short, those thresholds require one of the parties to have annual net sales or total assets exceeding $202M while the other party’s figures exceed $20.2M.
While the FTC announced these new threshold levels this month, they will only become effective thirty days after the official announcement is published in the Federal Register — so, late in February. The FTC has said that it is exploring other, more substantive, changes to the HSR process but none have been announced. As we have discussed previously, HSR’s valuation and exemption rules can be complicated so be sure to reach out to your Bona Law contact for further advice on HSR filing requirements and strategy.
Merger Guidelines to Change?
Earlier in the month, the FTC also announced that it was joining with the DOJ Antitrust Division to consider a complete rewrite of both the Horizontal and Vertical Merger Guidelines. In a virtual conference and a long statement, the agencies announced both the dozens of questions they hope to consider in the coming months and the process for the exercise. Comments and suggestions from the public are welcome until the end of March. The agencies expect to have a draft of new Guidelines shortly thereafter before opening another comment period. They hope to complete the process by the end of 2022.
The Guidelines have been issued by the agencies for decades. They are meant to describe the analysis that the agencies use to evaluate whether any merger or similar transaction violates the antitrust laws. Making the Guidelines public helps merging parties have some idea if their transaction will be challenged by the agencies. While not officially law, they have proven to be highly influential with courts considering such challenges.
The exact changes the agencies will propose are not yet known; however, based on their statements during the announcement and the questions posed to the public for comment, here are some key questions that the agencies will consider and that could lead to drastic changes in merger review:
- Should new Guidelines further de-emphasize market definition in favor of an approach that tries to directly predict competitive effects?
- Should presumptions based on market shares or similar measures be strengthened?
- Should effects on parties other than consumers, like labor and local communities, receive greater emphasis?
- Should effects on elements other than price, such as product quality and wages, receive greater emphasis?
- Should some efficiencies, such as lower input prices from suppliers, be seen as reasons to challenge the merger?
- Should distinctions between horizontal and vertical transactions reflected in the guidelines should be revisited considering trends in the modern economy?
The agencies also seek input on potential updates to the guidelines’ discussion of potential and nascent competitors, which may be key sources of innovation and competition, as well as how to account for key areas of the modern economy like digital markets in the guidelines, which often have characteristics like zero-price products, multi-sided markets, and data aggregation that the current guidelines do not address in detail.
To date, the Guidelines have been influential with courts because they have been perceived as a product of consensus among the experts and containing the latest economic thinking. If, as seems nearly certain, any new Guidelines lead to more challenges to proposed mergers, it remains to be seen if the new Guidelines and the process to draft them engenders that same confidence and respect.
If you or any of your trade associations wish to participate in the public comment process, please let your Bona Law contact know; otherwise, keep watching for updates from us on the Guidelines and other merger issues you need to know.